Networking

Articles about networking.

Good Evening Friends. As of Sept 2015, VMware recommended using the distribution-specific open-vm-tools instead of the VMware Tools package for guest machines. This means that instead of Vmware tools, the users should install openVM tools specific to the guest OS. The makers of Kali Linux  have made changes to  the latest Kali rolling kernel accordingly. These openVM tools have all the needed functionality  such as file copying, clipboard copy/paste and automatic screen resizing are working perfectly. Now let us see how to install OpenVM tools in Kali Linux rolling 2016.

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Open a terminal and locate the “sources.list” file. Open the “sources.list” file with any text editor. Here I opened with the Vi editor. The command is “vi /etc/apt/sources.list

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When the file opens, type “i” to get into insert mode. You cannot make changes to this file unless you get into insert mode.

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Now type “deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main contrib non-free” without quotes. Hit ESC, then SHIFT+:wq to save and close the file.

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Next type command apt-get update. 

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Then type command apt-get install open-vm-tools-desktop fuse. When it asks if you want to continue, type Y.

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After installation is over, reboot the system and you will get the screen as shown below. Happy hacking.

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Good Morning friends. Today let us see how to install Kali Linux Rolling 2016 in Vmware Workstation. We will use Vmware Workstation 10 for this howto. The rolling edition of Kali Linux gives users the best of all worlds – the stability of Debian, together with the latest versions of the many outstanding penetration testing tools created and shared by the information security community.  Watch the video or scroll down for step-by-step guide.

Ever since Sana has been released, the makers of Kali Linux have also released Pre-built virtual images for virtual box and Vmware. We will use that virtualbox image in this howto. Go here and download the Pre-built vmware image. After download is finished, you will get a zip file as shown below..

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Extract the contents of this file using any unzipping software into a folder  as shown below. The extracted file will be around 12GB, so make space appropriately.

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After extraction, the files will look like below.

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Now open Vmware Workstation and open the New Virtual Machine wizard( or just hit CTRL + N). Select the Custom radio button as shown below and click on “Next”.

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Click on “Next”.

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Select the option “I will install the operating system later” and click on “Next”.

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Select guest operating system as Linux and version as Debian 7 64-bit if you downloaded a 64 bit Vmware virtual image and Debian if you downloaded a 32bit Vmware image. Click on “Next”.

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Give any name to your virtual machine, allocate the location for it and click on “Next”.

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Click on “Next”.

 

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The system will take the required RAM as shown below. If you have more memory, you can allocate more RAM. Click on “Next”.

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For network type, choose NAT and click on “Next”.

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Click on “Next”.

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Click on “Next”.

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In the disk selection, choose the option “use an existing virtual disk” and click on “Next”.

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Now browse to the folder where we have earlier extracted files of our zip file. Click on “Next”.

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You will be shown a summary of your virtual machine. Your virtual machine has been successfully created. Click on “Finish”.

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Now power on the Virtual machine. It should be like below. Hope it was helpful. If you face any problems during installation, please comment below.

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NOTE : Kali Linux Rolling 2016.2 has been released. This guide works even for that too.

Good evening friends. I have seen that most of the people are still facing many problems while installing Kali Linux in Virtualbox. So today i brought the easiest method to install Kali linux in Virtualbox. It doesn’t involve  typing of any lengthy  commands. For this howto, I am installing Kali Linux v2.0 Sana in virtualbox version 5. This howto works for any host OS, from Windows XP to Windows 10. Just install the latest Virtualbox version for that operating system.

The makers of Kali Linux are providing prebuilt virtualbox images which are available for download here. First download the image.  It would be a compressed image. Now extract the contents of  the file at any location of your choice.

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It would be a ova extension file as shown below.

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Now open Virtualbox. Go to “File” and choose option “Import appliance”. Click on it.

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As soon as you click on it, the below window will open.

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Now, browse to the location of the OVA file we just downloaded. Click on “Next”.

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You will see the below window.  Check out all the options shown. Change any options if required.

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Make sure that the location where you are creating disk has enough space. Click on Import.

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The process of importing will start as shown below.

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It will take some time to process.  Just wait. As soon as the importing is over you will see the virtual machine  as shown below.

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Power On the virtual machine.  After some system processes, you will be asked for the username. The username is “root”.

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Next you will be prompted for password. The default password is “toor”.

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If everything went well, you should see the interface as shown below. Go to full screen to see if its working. You are all good to go. See, this is the easiest way to install Kali Linux in virtualbox. Hope it was helpful. Please comment if you encounter any problem. I would be happy to solve it.

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Windows 10 is familiar and easy to use, with lots of similarities to Windows 7 including the Start menu. It starts up and resumes fast, has more built-in security to help keep you safe, and is designed to work with software and hardware you already have. See how to install Windows 10 in Virtualbox.

Hi everybody, the much awaited Kali Linux V2.0 Sana has been released. It can be downloaded from here. Another good news is there is a new version of Oracle VirtualBox named version 5.o available for download here. So let us see how to install Kali Linux V2.o Sana in Virtualbox 5.0.

Open VirtualBox and click on New virtual machine wizard. The below window will open. Give the name you like for the virtual machine. Assign type as “Linux” and version as “Debian(32-bit)”. Assign memory size of atleast 768MB and select the option “Create a virtual hard disk now”. Click on “Create”.

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Choose the location where you want your virtual machine to be located. Keep the file size atleast 15GB. If you prefer to use your virtual machine in any other virtualization software like Vmware(VMDK) or others, choose appropriately else select VDI. Leave the storage to be “Dynamically allocated”. Click on “Create”.

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Now go to Virtual machine settings, click on “system settings”, on the “processor” tab check the option “Enable PAE/NX” and click on “OK”.

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Now power on the virtual machine and browse to  the iso file you downloaded from the website. Click on “Start”.

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When the Boot menu appears, select “Install”.

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Select the language you prefer for installation process using “space” bar and hit on “Enter” after selecting.

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Select your appropriate location.

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Select the keymap you prefer.

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Enter the hostname for your system. I named it as Kali. Hit on “Continue”.

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Assign a domain name if you want. You can leave it blank if you want. Click on “Continue”.

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Assign the password for root account.

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Confirm the root password.

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Select the partitioning option you prefer. If you are a newbie, select the first option as shown below.

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Select the disk to format. Obviously you will have only one disk to format.

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Select the partitioning scheme you prefer. If you are a new user, select the first option as recommended.

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A summary of your selections is listed. Proceed to finish partitioning and write changes to the disk as shown below.

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Select “Yes” to write changes to disk.

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Select a network mirror if you want otherwise select “no”.

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If you get stuck on a blue screen for a bit long time as shown below, don’t panic. Just wait for the system to finish its job.

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Next, install the Grub bootloader when prompted to install.

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Select the hard disk on which to install GRUB bootloader. Since we have not partitioned our hard disk, that would be second choice as shown below.

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The system will start installing. Once the installation is finished as shown below, click on “Continue” to restart the system.

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Once system reboots, enter username. The default username is “root”. Click on “Next”.

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Next, enter the password. That would be the password you configured above. Hope you have not forgotten it.

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The new Kali Linux V2.0 Sana will look like below. Congrats, you have successfully installed Kali Linux in virtualbox.  Next, let’s install Virtualbox guest additions.

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Go to Devices and click on “Insert Guest Additions CD image” as shown below.

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You will see a CD image on the Desktop as shown below. The system will automatically prompt you to run the CD.

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But when you click on “Run”, you will get the error as shown below.

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Now open a teminal. Type command “cd /media“. Next type “ls“. type “cd cdrom” and type “ls” once again as shown below.  The guest addition CD is mounted at the location cdrom and we just navigated to that location. Copy the highlighted file as shown below to the root directory by using command “cp VBoxLinuxAdditions.run /root”.

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Now navigate to the root directory by typing command “cd /root” and type ls to see if the file has been successfully copied to the directory. Now change the permissions of the file by using command “chmod 755 VBoxLinuxAdditions.run” . Now let us execute the file by typing “./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

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The file will start executing as shown below. Once it finishes execution, restart the system.

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If everything goes well, guest additions will be installed successfully.

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If you face any  problem, please leave comments below.

Here’s a video  version  how to install Kali Linux V2.0 Sana in virtualbox.


Good evening friends, today we will see how to enable IPv6 on a cisco router with cisco ios. To know what is IPv6, go here. Enabling IPv6 routing on a cisco router is pretty easy and involves only a few commands.

First of all, we have to enable the router to pass IPv6 traffic. In global configuration mode of the router, type command “ipv6 unicast-routing”. Then go to the specific interface on which you want to configure IPv6 addressing by typing command “interface <type> <number>”  as shown below.  Type command “ipv6 enable”.

ipv6 on a cisco router

Now let’s check whether IPv6 is enabled or not on our specified interface. Go back to Privileged Exec Mode  and type command “show ipv6  interface ethernet1/0″. To know about different modes on Cisco IOS, go here. Now when we type the above command, we can see that our device has been assigned a IPv6 address as shown below.

ipv6 on a cisco router

 

Matriux Krypton is a pen testing distribution based on Debian. It consists of almost 300 security tools for ethical hacking categorized as arsenals. It has a category for data recovery which is not prevalent in other penetration testing distros. Today we are going to see how to install Matriux Krypton Ec-Centric in Oracle Virtual box. It can be downloaded from here. Open Virtualbox and click on “New virtual machine”. On the popup window, give the name as Matriux ( in fact any name you like ). Select operating system as “Linux” and version as “Ubuntu”. Click on “Next”.

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Select the appropriate memory you want to assign to the virtual machine and click on “Next”.

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Select the option “create a virtual hard drive file” and click on “Create”.

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Select Hard drive file type as VDI. Click on “Next”.

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Choose appropriate storage option and click on “Next”.

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Set your virtual hard disk size appropriately but I suggest you to keep it above 8 GB. Click on “Create”.

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Select the location of the iso file and click on “Start”.

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Select the option “Live”  and hit Enter.

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Log into account matriux. The default password is  “toor“.

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 If everything went well, your system should look like this.

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 Before running the Matriux disk Installer, we need to perform some operations. Go to “System>Administration>Gparted” as shown below.

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 Enter the administrative password as “toor”. Click on “OK”.

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 In the gparted window, click on “Create Partition table”.

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 When a warning is shown, click on “Apply”.

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 Right click on the unallocated hard disk and select “New” as shown below.

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 Change the file system  to ext3 and click on “Add”.

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We can see our “New Partition” ready to be created. Click on the “tick mark with blue background”.

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 We can see our partition created as below.

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 Close the window and click on “Matriux Disk Installer” we saw above. When the window opens as below, click on “Yes”.

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 Choose the partition we created( i.e /dev/sda1) and click on “OK”.

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Click on “OK”.

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Click on “OK”.

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Create a personal account login name.

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Choose the password for you personal account. Click on “OK”.

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Choose the root account password. Click on “OK”.

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Select the appropriate locale as en_US. Click on “OK”.

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If everything goes well, we will get a window as shown below. Click on “Yes”.

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 We will get the below message after successful installation.  Click on “Yes” to reboot your system and you are ready to go.

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Hope this was helpful.

AEtherchannel is the port link aggregation technology invented by a company named Kalpana. This company was acquired by Cisco systems in 1994.  Etherchannel allows us to group several ( practically eight ) physical Ethernet links on a Cisco switch into one logical link. Advantages of etherchannel include increased bandwidth and fault tolerance. For example, when we group eight physical ports into one logical port, considering bandwidth of each port is 100 Mbps, the combined bandwidth is 800 Mbps. What if one of the port fails?. Well the rest of the ports take over thus preventing any failure. Let’ see it a little bit practically.

Imagine we have a network as shown below. There are two separate departments named Sales and Engg  in a company which are connected through a router.

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There comes a time when the traffic between these two significant departments becomes so intense that the network administrator decides to interconnect the two switches of the respective departments as shown below so that the traffice doesn’t disturb the router. ( CCNA guys, always remember that  switches are interconnected using crossover cables only ).

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Considering the importance of the two departments, the network administrator decides not only to provide additional bandwidth but also provide fault tolerance between the departments. Etherchannel satisfies both these requirements.

Now let’s see how to configure etherchannel.  To configure etherchannel, login to SWITCH1. Enter global configuration mode by typing command “config t”. Type the command “interface port-channel 1″ to create etherchannel port trunk. Type command “interface range fastethernet 0/1-8″ to select eight interfaces to assign to our etherchannel port trunk. Type command “channel-group 1 mode on” to assign the interfaces to the etherchannel port trunk.

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We can see below that we have successfully configured  etherchannel  on our switch.

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Now let’s configure VLAN trunk over the etherchannel logical port trunk. Type command “interface port-channel 1″ to select the etherchannel port. Type command “switchport mode trunk” to  set etherchannel port as trunk port.

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Hope this was helpful.

Good evening friends. We have seen how to create a virtual pentest lab both in Oracle VirtualBox (see here) and Vmware Workstation(see here). Although both penetration testing labs  were almost similar, there is a small difference between them . As the title of this howto already implies it is the absence of DHCP server in the pentest lab we created using Virtualbox. VirtualBox provides a DHCP server but it can’t be turned on using the GUI feature unlike Vmware Workstation. So let’s see how to enable DHCP server in Virtualbox networks. I am going to assign DHCP server to my pentest lab I created above. I will assume that  virtualbox is installed on Windows. Open CMD and navigate to the directory where  Virtualbox is installed. By default it will be “C:Program Files OracleVirtualBox”. Type the command “vboxmanage dhcpserver add –ip 10.10.10.1 –netmask 255.0.0.0 –lowerip 10.10.10.2 –upperip 10.10.10.10 –netname pentestlab”. Hit Enter.

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In the above command, “vboxmanage dhcpserver  add –ip 10.10.10.1” starts a DHCP server with IP address 10.10.10.1 . The “–netmask 255.0.0.0″ assigns subnet mask for the network. The “–lowerip” and “–upperip” options assign a lower ip address and upper ip address respectively.   The “–enable” option enables the DHCP server we just created. The “–netname” option assigns a name to the network. Now we have successfully created an internal network named pentestlab with its own DHCP server. Now change the network adapter settings of the attacker machine ( Kali Linux ) to pentestlab.

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Similarly change the network settings of the victim machine.

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Now start the attacker machine (Kali Linux) to see if the IP address is automatically assigned. If the IP address has not been assigned, disable the adapter using command “ifdown eth0″ and re enable it by typing command “ifup eth0″. Now check if the IP address has been assigned or not by typing command “ifconfig”.

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Similarly check on the victim machine.

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We can see that the IP addresses have been automatically assigned successfully starting from the range of 10.10.10.2. Hope this was helpful.